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Full text of "Art of preserving wood."

\ 






nmx. 



1900 



WOOD VRESE^TNG 



*Y/f 



ORGANIZED TJND 



J<- 




*3*7 




NEW YORK 







f> » * 




| ? Q()0,O(J© 



Divided into 10,000 Shares of $100 Each ; 
1000 SHARES-$1 00,000 WORKING CAPITAL. 



OFFICERS. 



J. RICHARD BARRET, 
HENRY STEERS, - 



Pi lent. 
Vicc-1' nt. 

Sect'' it (j. 



I. ( WOODS, 

J GENE KELLY (No- NewYork,) Tr< iwn 



M E W Y O R K : 



OFFICE-No. 68 BROADWAY, 

ROOMS IT, 121 cfc 13- 

1866. 



Edwakd (X ' 



\ ir William Stkebt >ew York 



THE 



NATIONAL PATENT 



WOOD PRESERVING 




ORGANIZED UNDER THE LAWS OF NEW YORK 






1, 000,000 



£2*2) ft ft ^ - ' V ^ ^' ' w V *' $ 



Divided into 10,000 Shares of $100 Each; 



1000 SHARES-$100,000 WORKING- CAPITAL. 



OFFICERS. 



J. RICHATID BARRET, 
HENRY STEERS, - 



P, , trident. 

Y' -President. 

S GTi tary. 



I. C. WOODS, 

E U GEN E K ELL V , (»<*■ 2* »«*»«> Street, Mew York,) Tf€OZ " re,'. 



NEW YORK: 

OFFICE-No. 68 BROADWAY, 

lEXOOlVES IX, 1S2 cfc 13. 

1800. 



I 



I 









BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



SAMUEL TATE, 

President of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad Company, 



FRANCIS MORRIS, 

Treasurer of the American Telegraph Company 



GEN. A. S. DIVEN, 

Vice-President of the Erie Railroad Company 



SILAS SEYMOUR, 

Consulting and Chief Engineer of the Union Pacific Railroad Co, 



HENRY STEERS, 

Shipbuilder, New York. 



J. W. FOSTER, 



Chicago — Geologist of the State of Tllin 



WILLIAM 0GDEN GILES, 



Merchant, New York. 



CHARLES WATROUS, 

Lumber Merchant, (Firm Willson cfe Waftrom,) New York 



J. RICHARD BARRET, 



St. Louis, Missouri 



AX ISTOUNCEMENT. 

The National Pates Wood Pke<k::vin<; Cohpamt, bavin, 

c*5 



Woo 



I, patented by 

Louis B. Bobbu ifl now prepared to u ,,<! to sell the i lit to 
u aid Invention in Towns, Cities, Counties and Sta , to 
Individuals, to Railroad Companies and other 0or\ Horn 
Ml applicationa to i Company will receive immediate attentioa 



•J. RICHARD BARRET, Pn»idenf 
HENRY STEERS, Vice-Pi mi 
I. C. WOODS, 

S B. I ;!»' 1 I T.\ X. ( ,, neral Acrent 



h ' Hit t if 



' F K I < K OF Coil J' \ Y, 

' 

ft I I. 1st, 1- .. 



ART ()K PRESERVING Wool). 






importance of preserving wood for mechanical pur- 
)K)8( - can no longer be questioned. Timber, conve- 
niently located — within a reasonable distance of the chief 
centersofthe lumber trade — must soon be exhau d. We 
shall, ere long, be obliged to draw our supplies from situations 
remote from the main channels of water communication — 
from the gradual slopes and steep acclivities of the real 

mountain ranges which I inverse the continent AVhen the 

country along thecbief lines of railway shall also have been 
stripped of such building materials, we shall be compelled 
to look to other, siill more distant, and comparatively inac- 
cessible regions lor what we require; and from such source 
ii will onl\ be obtained l»\ great labor and at a heavy ex- 
pense. A verj large portion erf the country embraced with- 
in the geographical limits of the new States and Territories, 
is, even now, very poorly supplied with wood. In Nevada 
a sit le railroad sleeper is worth double the average price 
in the Eastern and Middle States. A rough knotty -tick. 

five feet lon;f and one foot in diameter — only lit to prop 

up the roof of a mine — is worth <>>>< dollar in <f<>l<l. '1 he 
rapid >ttlemen1 of that country, and of the whole Pacific 
side of the continent, will soon render wood, of all the ma- 
terials employed in the useful arts, the most difficult to he 
_p obtained. 

>* But the world scarcely realizes the existence of a great 






A RT OP PRESBB VING W OOD. 

and •_ neral demand before it i:- supplied. The resources of 
Mature, the triumphs of the human mind, and the order of 
Providence, all combine t<> meet the chief necessities of 
eiT aee. Perhaps no more important discover} has been 
made, in 1 1 n • departmen t of the useful arts, than the ne^ 
pro ss of pr< irving wood, for which Mb. Louis S. Kobbins 
hat i eived Letters Patent The metallic compounds 
emph (1 l.\ several European inventors had all substan- 
tially failed. Tosa> the least, the processes were all ex- 
pensivi the machine rj imperfect, and the result unsatis- 
factory. The pi ess < M 1 ih<dl. <»i England has n 
employ d with fai success than any < her, especially 

in ilic preparation of railroad sl< rs. He rejected t he 
metallic solutions, and in their stead u» an oh ^inou 
compound obt in I from coal tar. The me ns he employ- 
id i" ivi!i<'\ tli- :ti iii- lieric pn sure and the moisture 
from the wcx ! — i<> ili<' end thai th< compound mi hi 

I ma< • to j 1 1 1 « - : 1 1 * - ih substan were exj>eusive and 
onh nartialh • ctual. In Mr. Ilol in nroc< s ihr In h 

i i 

temj itun nd the va of oil remove the air and moist- 
n I inallv that il wood i adih n i*i\ <> i h" liouid 

oil Ion itudinalh through all i pon \\ hen hcavt tim- 

1 lo be pi in I, it not n \ thai i h< oil should 

j in-i rat i In To facilit i h pn in such 

d i<> non <• time and mat* rial i h oil ma\ be 
ij»l»l I in I piid mi a the hoi vap have tpel- 
) 1 the ii nd ih< humeri i he [j nan been i »m- 

1-1 I) ( 'd h\ th ippl h< ,1 and 1 h< inn 

d tion of the ci Q the vaj r. It superior advan- 

* I In - n > I <ll\ il .||o\\ h ■ 

1. I b< ■ \ajM i in ui< l\ in ;i la ( on 

i i In th< cl ml 1 1 1 « * sin i< <• m< i iirc i> di> i- 

■ 



l>at< il \n -ii il\ sea> I. 






A RT 01 I'Kl < i- R \ I N W 0OD. 






2. The materials used in the process ai ^<> exj>anded 
bi beal a to lill more than l,Ot I tim - the spa • the} oc- 
cup} iii the Liquid state. B ( ncl -<l thus subtile and 

nenetratin the element i tential to the result are read 1I3 
admitted into the small t pores of the wood. 

3 rhebeat act -nit- the capillary action or molecular 
attraction; ;m<l hence the antiseptic matter is c aveyed 
more speedih and fulh through the tibrou- : >rt ions of the 

I 

wood. 

I. The apparatu > 1 simplified ; and, for the 1 isons 

tlread) stated, 1 1n? process 1 rendei I dioi rapid and 

complete. 

5. The wood treat I b\ this p 4 is Iff I cimn 00 tin 



siirl ' 









and iim\ be l"i . I\ handled and imni ulial 1} n 



M 



for ni\ purjM> 

6, If de 11. I for out- build in tnc cultui I im- 
plement 1 any other purpose 1 which nuent 1- no! 
in object, the wood requires no paint but wh painti t< 
be n the wood is m< s\ thonn hi} 1 I ' 

it, bi'iicj i! ! adv primed in t ho most 1 1 man 

7. Tin w 1 in \\ Inch the [K>r lit; lai ' and the li 

neoua filler least com] ict, is 1 ndei I m b;ml .md 

lint. mp< habl( is the fine it ii timl 

nature of the matei ial « ith w hi '1 th« 



The very 

w I is impi nated, n turall} id 1 im| rvi as to 

moi»tun and experi ha? lr 1} dei n>trat I il t 

u, , { \ » pre] ed is miparath 1} ini|>ei ishabl 



1 "' 



I 1. 



\i Neither science nor lin ) *kiH is lr 

1 onductin the pi *s, and the in 1 I t mei 

under the patent involves but tritiii m ns< 

In gitua m w hei it is • onstantlj ex] *1 \ 11 
• 1 iv > of temperature and 1 tun i I de< in a 



holt t i in* 



I. 



ill- 1 1 1« 1 sll |'« 1 s 



t 1. mini: -; in moisl 



8 ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 



places, with little or no circulation of air beneath ; the fence 
posts set in the ground, and railroad ties, seldom last over 
live years. The decay of timber employed for these pur- 
poses is immense, so great, indeed, as to defy computation. 
In the few cases which admit of accurate estimates the 
facts are surprising, and fully justify the conclusion, that 
the actual loss to the country by the decay of wood — in all 
the various uses for which it is employed in the mechanic 
arts — must amount to thousands of millions of dollars every 
year. It is true that in many places, and for many uses, 

wood does not decay so rapidly as in the particular cases 
already named; still, if we could arrest this universal pro- 
cess oi decay, but for one year, we should doubtless save 
enough to cancel the present national debt. 

The reader's attention may now be called to a'more spec- 
ific statement of some of the particular uses to which this 
process for preserving wood may be applied with the 



greatest advantage. 



RAILROADS 






In respect to the timber used for sleeper-, we can deter* 
mine the annual waste by the ordinary process of decay, 
with considerable precision. It requires 2,500 ties or 

sleepei for a single mile of railway. These are furnished 

at n average cost of one dollar, including the expense of 

laying down the same. As they must he renewed as often 

l one.- in live years, it will be perceived that the annual 

decaj is at the rate of twenty per < atuin on the original 
cost ; oi. annually, $500 per mile. The 50,000 miles of rail- 
tracl 3, now in the United Stat o oily require for 

their suppon I ii~>, 000,000 of sleepers. These must inev- 
itably be repi, ced, ..nee in about five years, at a cost of one 
dollar each ; hence it w ill he percieved, that the annual ex- 



ART OF PRESERVING WOOD 9 



penditure for this purpose is some 25,000,000 of dollars. 
Is the Bobbin's process is sure to preserve them for a 
quarter of a century, and thereby render it unnecessary to 
change them during all that period, it follows that this 
immense sum (less the cost of the original treatment under 
the patent) may be annually saved to the country. For 

the local structures — depot buildings, store houses, machine 
hops, bridges (the latter need not be covered), and the im- 
mense rolling-stock of our great railways, this process is 
scarcely less valuable, and its application to these uses 
must greatly increase the dividends of our railroad corpor- 
ations. When the woodwork of the cars is otherwise com- 
pleted, it may be readily subjected to this treatment ; and 
thus the same process will thoroughly season the wood, till 
the pores and fibrous portions with powerful antiseptics, 
and cover the surface far more effectually than any priming 
known to the painter, leaving it in the most perfect condi- 
tion to receive an ornamental finish of paint and varnish 
when that is required. 

But we have not yet fully estimated the evil of the pre- 
sent rapid decay. In the course of three years after the 

construction of a railroad the ties begin to decay so 
rapidly, that it becomes necessary to remove a greater or 
less number of the same in everv succeeding year. This 
frequently obstructs travel and delays the t ran spoliation 

of merchandise over the road Moreover, the repairs of 
necessity disturb the bed on which the sleepers rest, and 
w hatever unsettles the foundations of portions of the road 
is liable to render it less secure as a whole, and the chances 
that accidents will occur are indefinitely multiplied. 



AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

The Agricultural interest is the one upon which the true 




10 



ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 



wealth of nations primarily and chiefly depends ; it follows, 

therefore, that avast amount of capital is necessarily in- 
vested in the implements of husbandly. The inevitable 
xposure of these to all the vicissitudes of temperature and 

moisture in a short time render- them useless. If they do 
not immediately decay, t lie vitality and elasticity of the 
wood are soon destroyed, so that it is easily broken. The 
process here offered to the public affords a sure protection 
against the destructive effects of 0x3 ajen and moisture, and 
thus preserves such implement- until they are literally 
worn out bv attrition. 



liARRELS AND CISTERNS 



\Y annually require million f barrels, casl ofvariou 
si/.c^, and large cisterns for the spirit and oils of every 
possible description, and all tin' liquid products of our 

manifold industry* Tin c barrels ar now made from s< - 

•nod timber making it necess ry for the manufacturer to 

invest a large amount of capital in the quantity which 

must In kept on hand; besides tin- timber is liable to l>< 

dam; d for such purposes — while it is bein asoned — b) 
111:1 II worms that bore th ugh it in all directions. Green 
timber can b< employed for this purpose, provided it be 
first ti it I h\ Mr. dobbins' process. This offei an ad- 
vanta • which will be readily appreciated by « \<*rv barrel 
manufacturer. A very la rg • proportion of the packa 
intended for ti sportation, both in our domi tietraxh and 
forei d mmerce, are put up in thi form; and the con- 
tents of such packa probably repn cut more than one- 
fourth of tli marl t value < the el e men 1 > t hat enter info 
the commerce of the world. The< rtain exposure of such 

pael * to all the chunks of temperature and d< i<-< b 



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12 ART OP PRESERVING WOOD. 

materials, i specially the shingles so generally used for cov- 
ering the roofs, and which should always be treated in the 
manner herein proposed, No reliable estimate can ever be 
fornu of the loss to the world by the decay of buildings. 
N<>t only t lie materials perish, but all the labor expended 
in fashioning the same into the innumerable forms of use 

and beaul is likewise lost. The proposed treatment of 

lumber for such purposes, besides saving the priming coat 
of paint in all cases, would so increase its durability, that 
a large portion of the labor now expended in erecting hu- 
man habitations and other structures of wood, could be at 
once direct I into other profitable channels, thus augment- 
in^ the wealth of all civilized nations. 

FENCES. 

The preparation of fencing materials cert inly su .rests 

one of the most important uses to which the new proa - 

for preserving wood can be applied. Some years since, Mr. 
John S. Skinm while editing the Phw y Loom and Anvil, 
titer a painstaking investi ttion of the subject, prepared 
and published a > of papers in which he is led to con- 

clude — from all the information in hisposs< sion — that the 
settin and repairing < ma of the United States actually 
cost the couuti much as the building of the towns and 
(, iti Esp( allyin those] >rtions of the Union whei the 
people are obliged to use -awed Lumber— obtained from a 
distance s in Illinois and other parts of th< gn t Wesi 
thisproces* oftreatin wood must I- of incalculable value 
a« fences bo prepared and properly i will last lor -rnna 
tioi . 



Carriac; wo < a 



1 h ' here ( (1 is also important in the prepara- 

tion lumber for \ bid 3 ol ei j d< ription. Millioi 



ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 13 

of dollars are invested in this business, and this treatment, 
especially as applied to the hubs of carriages, is of great 
practical utility. Without it the hubs soon check or crack 
in such a manner as to loosen the spokes, and thereby de- 
stroy the integrity of the whole wheel. Moreover, the tim- 
ber chiefly used for hubs is that part of the trunk nearest 
the ground, the portions further removed from the root be- 
ing too soft for that purpose; but this treatment renders 
the higher portions of the tree, if otherwise suitable, not 
less valuable for this particular purpose. 



FURNITURE AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 

The utility of applying this treatment to furniture and 
the cases of musical instruments will be obvious on a mo- 
ment's reflection. 1. Green wood mav be used, thus obvi- 

ating the necessity for the investment of a huge capital in 
lumber. 2. The varying degrees of moisture will not cause 

the wood so treated to alternately swell and -lirink. 3. Its 
tendency to warp and crack is ureatly diminished. 4. The 
wood — both surface and substance — is most effeetu ally oiled, 
5. Soft woods are rendered much harder than before, and 
hence susceptible of a higher polish. 6. The wood become- 
more resonant by this treatment, which is important if it 
is to be used for the cases of organs, pianofortes and 
melodeons. 



PLANK ROADS AND WOOD PAVEMENTS. 

The chief objection to plank roads and wood pavements 
is based upon their sure and rapid decay, and the necessity 
— after two or three years — for constant repairs. The 
treatment of wo I for these uses will, it is believed, entire- 
ly obviate this objection. Not only is the wood pr< served 
from decay, but it is much less liable to warp and check ; 



14 ART OF PRESERVING WOOD 



at the same time this treatment must so increase ii^ capac- 
ity to resist abrasion, that it will wear inuchjonger. 



TELEGRAPH POLES. 

In 1800, all Europe had 130,000 miles of telegraph, and 
; that time the United States alone had more than 50,000 
miles. It is doubtless safe to estimate the present aggre- 
gate Length of all <>ui telegraph lin<"> al 60,000 miles. If 

we allow fortj poles to the mile, it will be perceived that 
2 100,000 pole- are required for the lines already existing 
in this country. The average cost ol'tliesi* — including the 



labor of preparin and putting them up — niaj be estimated 
at five dollars each, or #12,000,000 for the whole number 
no\* in use. More than double that number of poles is re- 

[uired for the existing lines in Europe, where they are 
prcsun* I to cost mere than in this country. From these 
facts and estimate w are authorized to conclude, that the 
amount of apital i *ted in telegraph poles in Europe 

m<l the 1 Hi 1 - ites is not less than 40,000,000 of dol- 
lai li we assume that they will last twelve yeai (thi 
is not probable the annual cost of i placing the decayed 

,l,,,i than 3 000,000 of dollars, which may tx 
iv< i l mbjectin tel raph poles to treatment under the 

H bbinn pat* 



• His I- 



BUILDING I -Nil J. 

LTnd< this I ,(] w .a.pe end all ships, steamers and 
h teof< d scription, employed in th« navj and >r 
,,lr x \ v 't' " of p;e and mercham in th< 

'linn mo international intei m of the world. I 

importan t\ idering w 1 ii„ ructible, at least in a 

l li lhi ^ ■ . * *< I urpo* b hen indicated, - mnot I 



ART OF Till, ERVING Woijd. 



1 



too highly estimated. The vast Bum expended in naval 
architecture, and in the whole merchant marine of all na- 
tions, ar now measurably thrown away on ; >unt of (lie 
perishable nature of the materials employed. Before the 

late war, sonic of i he vessels intended I'm >ur navyd I 

on the stocks, or were damn ed by worms to such a d< 
that it became ncc m to repla main of the timber: 
before tin structures were completed. Tin- builder scarce- 
ly kept out of the way of the destroy* p. Our mechanical 
industry is sacrificed when we have only perishable and 
worthless memorials of its greatest achievements. 

The lo 3 in consequence of tins rapid de< is so 
thai if it "were in our power to submit acci at< »timat< 
of lh' same, the figures would astonish 1 1 1 • * h oum 
(v. Not only is lh is great loss unavoidabl Ion w< 
use timber that has dimply been |»i ired bj then linarj 
procc of seasoning, but incalculabli ilth, in th hap 
of mei mdise oes to t he l»<>i torn ol i he 
merely because our merchant vessels and si huh Inn 
b< en so far impaired, b\ I ho dec \ of oni tli ii I ml 
or otherwis tint the> give wai md the whole fabric 
to pieces amidst th< strife of the elements. Thousan 



e: \ 






li\r> ilso lost from the same c se. This f< ful de 

truction admonishes us that the timbers ol vhi h we build 
our ships of war, forei n packets, me \ - lit 

boats, et , should be made of materials tbi wat -|>i 

worm-proof, and, if possible, time- proof. Notonlyd - tl 
Robbing proc ss pr rve the w< 1 from th d ru i\ 
powers of oxygen and moisture md from th jresoftl 

Teredo Na ilis, in the nu t j rfect mann< \ ibl but 
t his ti atment by ole; anous compounds liki pi in 

the eorros m of the metallic bolts, spik md i tils, emplo} 

ed in the construction of all such works. 



16 ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 



BURIAL CASES. 

The common desire we all feel to preserve the remains of 
the dead has led to the extensive use of metal cases instead 
of coffins made of wood. These are not only expensive, but 
they soon corrode, and it is questionable whether the best 
of them will last longer than twenty or thirty years. It is 
believed that wood thoroughly treated under the Bobbins 
patent will last a century in the ground. The cases found 
in the tombs of Egypt, where they have remained for 3,000 
years, are generally in a good state of preservation. It is 
well known that these cases were prepared with bitumin- 
ous substances, and that the same were used with the 
pyroligneous acid of wood in the process of embalming their 

(lead. 



We have, in the extreme Southern portion of our country, 

large quantities of perishable wood (cotton-wood and other 
soft varieties) which may I >e made available by the applica- 
tion <>f this treatment, in the ('(instruction of railroads and 
for other purposes. In Mexi< > and South America — when 
the ordinary decay of wood is more rapid than in mon 
northern countrii — it is believed thai a great market may 

be opened for the sale of railroad timber and other lumber, 

provided the same be rendered durable by the treatment, 
herein proposed. 



ART OF PUE-ERVINff WOOD 



n 



FROM TIIK -< IKXTIKH v M i KH \ \ 



THE ART OF PR] M RVING Wool). 



Wood is an article of prime n c litj and itandi foremort in its connection 
with every conceivable interest within the range of civilization, Millions of 
men ami unlimited capital are dailj employed in convt ing wood ami lumber 
to the innunn ible and oecessarj us \ required tor human >mfort. So great 
i the demand for Lumber in the progn of tl ami civilisation, that our 

Dative forest which so recently covered uearlj the whol of the i n and 

Middle Stat< , have been brought into requisition ami removed, except -mall 
portions at great di tances from market or situated in almost iiiarce*«ible lo- 

calities. The Lncrca>< oi our population uml tin- improvements in th» arts, 
generally, have 1 n so rapid, that even now it is ;t serious problem as 

where we are to obtain our future auppl) of won. I md Imnl 

Notwithstanding wood in »o intimately and extensively connected with .ill 

the various interests of human progress, ami the vast and unlimited mean le- 

voted to its roiivei hi from ii> condition in the forest to its ultim u it 

• i have e . ;i| I, even the most casual ohscn tl il v « rthdess, an 

article uhj* d to rapid and n-el s decay. It i- a no l« - \w\\ t r th:i 

Wood occupies a place that cannot he supplied b\ all tin hern Mir 

ii. ii in-. .1 h\ human invention. 

It now becomes :i matter for rious inquiry whether' muot a< lerat« 

the "growth of wood or it erve ii from decav. Iml this has lom r I i 

&ubj< of ui I earnest inquiry and deep concern in count r fan older civi- 
lization than our ow n ; ami within the last thirty \ s tl.« inventiv< lt« uiui o 
man has been taxed to devis< means by which so desj lea result Mil. I 1. 
obtained as the preservation ot l. In vie* of the in vpenditure o( 

nine and capital, devoted to fashioning "»d adaptii 1 I tin \ u 

i >rins ami uses recjuii 1, it is obvious that no ^n ,ii« r ach QC i an Im ide 

in the useful art- than the effectual preservation of wood U'* rn d« id rli. 

saving of the vast annual expenditure requii I in removii the thii s whiel 
the elements have destroyed, and in supplying new mat nd atr es 

in their place. 

Out of the great number* inventions ami patents made ami obtained r 
this purp one invention — that t Inch Bethell ohr I fitters Pal i 

Knsrland in \t — has d- rated the tut, that hvtl us< oleaginous com 

pounds, obtained from th< distillation of coal tar, pn erl applied, u I i 

be preserved for an imh finite length of I ime. 

The followil killed inventions and p;i , made and lilted i I 

ferred to for the pur] of showing meofth m oa which I been 

res ed to — without sub ntial success— > obtain this d n -u • id 

• to afford such information to the public as II _ lard it against any es- 



18 ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 

penditure of means with a \iew to the introduction of such process* in this 
country. 

Ryan's process for preserving wood was the first to attract general attention. 
It was introduced in 1832, and subsequently patented in this country. The 
proa s consists in saturating the wood with a dilute solution of corrosive sub- 
limate. This method, ihvays too expensive to admit of general application, 
h b( i ii wholly abandoned in this country. 

In 1837, one Margary obtained a patent in England for pr« rying timber 
by immersing it in a solution of acetate or sulphate of <«>pp« \\ After being 

thoroughly tested in England this process lias -radually yielded to other 

processes. 

In 1838, Sir William Burnett's process was patented, and sin*, that timi 
Burnettbring wood has 1m i practiced in Europe and America. In tin* pro. 

<. 38 th ITOOd II saturated with a OOm Dtrated solution ofthl chloride of 2M1C. 

While Cyan discovery failed of being widely adopted, from the fact that tie 
material employed u i too expensive to admit of being generalh used, Boi> 
oett'ti pnx for a similar n -a-on, has only Keen empkr I to a limited extent. 

Payne 1 process was patented in England in i-ti. He employed two *< in 
tioniy tncc< . which naturally d< mpoaed each othei forming an into- 

lubl substan in tli , s of tb rood. The earthy or metallic solutionis 
h I introduce 1 into tin- til ■• \\ under pre? after which tin olul m is 

drawn off and thedecompi ing fluid forced in. Sulphati if iron and carbonate 

• la aid to form the insoluble compound in the poree of t be « ood. Tli 
pro - ha* I M tried In England and tlirs country, and bai met with >m< 

1"a\ or in I 

Dr. Bouchei distil dished 1 ml, chemist, invented a pmn Cor mv- 

tervil vs and for which h« proCU d a patent It is claimed that thil 

|. u omplisbes two object* : — Fimt 9 if expels tin sap; and xradly, if 

till tho J •< tin tii with i |>i rvativi lution, Tli* fluid that is al- 

l< i i • th p 1 i io introduce i by pressure that it "j longi- 

tudinally j the til thus exp llinfj thi up ;md Mcupj bg it- place. The, 

• <l ' pw e being I in this ^ mtry under the false pretence 

tl lew d \« 

1 bell— bj pr nted in Kmjland in 1838 — rendered wood more 

:, l ible by tin I a ch mat- d;but his machinen was nun 

wil} • mplical Mid -i thod of ooadoctiiij the proa > <juit<» imperfect 

'» t |.cnKi\ • idnul of L application. \\ ict the following 

l' : ' -"!•' * i II- I' tl I ■ H.iall 1 :,t . ,|„ • of,,,,.. 

tt r 4 v ood, i>ul> tliii- i pi iii ] 

h I nating the tin t*r irith an |y man,,- obtained from 

.did lath. ii in uli Tliih matter m , V ai 

s I I «•»■' pen f ,| ,,,,,, ,, ,,,, 

pui «eista>-l to uhi.l, »,„•, M , timnted, :i ,, ( 

j-« • the produ.-t ol li.tillati - , thi, |>lir| | , tli 



ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 



19 



gradients have a no less important effect. The oily matter is injected into the 
timber by pressure in closed vessels, from which the air is first partially 

exhausted." 

The subjoined letter from Dr. Dwindle, who personally witnessed what he 
describes, is sufficiently explicit, in respect to BethelUs machinery and process. 



"Louis S. Robbins, — Dear Sir : I cheerfully comply with your request t<» 
give you such information as I obtained in Kurope, several years ago, in regard 
to the use of coal tar and its products as a means of preserving wood. 

"In 1852, while investigating different matters of public Interest in London, 
I wafl invited by Mr. Burt to visit his extensive 1 works on the Surrey side of 

the Thames, where he had, for several years, been treating — for the English 

and India markets — large quantities of wood with product s of coal tar f accord- 
ing to a process patented by Mr. Bethell in 1838, 

"Mis process consisted in placing the wood or lumber in a large iron cylin- 
der, constructed expressly for the purpose, and made very strong. When 

these cylinders were sufficiently charged with wood — it being carried into 
them on cars constructed for the purpose — the ends were closed in such a man- 
ner as to render t hem perfectly tight, the air and moisture were then exhausted, 
as nearly as possible, by air pumps attached to the apparatus for that purpose, 
Then other pumps were employed to force the liquid product, that had been 
obtained by distillation of coal tar, into the cylinders, which was continued 

until a pressure of 150 lbs. to the inch was reached. After a certain time had 

(lapsed, the wood was taken out of the cylinders and placed in a suitable po- 
sition for drying, when it was ready for use. 

"The machinery employed for these operations was both complicated and 
expensive, and so imperfect, in respect to its capacity to product the result 
desired, that a large amount of time was required to saturate the wood to anv 
considerable extent, or in a degree sufficient tor the purp of its preservation. 
This method, however, was considered the best then known, and had been 
proved to be a success for many years, by the practical use of the wood thus 

treated. 

" BethelFs process seemed to be very objectionable, not only because it re- 
quired much time and labor, but also for the reason that it was only suited t*« 
the treatment of lumber to be used for the most ordinary purposes, such a- 
railroad sleepers, piles for wharves, bridges, etc, etc. 

" I have carefully examined your patented process. It app i to be simple, 
rapid and inexpensive, and much more perfect in its results than BethelFs, in- 
asmuch as the hot oleaginous vapors arising from the distillation of the coal 
tar must, under the circumstances, permeate every portion of the wood or lum- 
ber to any extent required. 

"Your process is open to none of the objections urged against BethelFs 
plan, since, by its use, wood maybe rapidly and properly treated for all the 
various uses to which wood is applied in the mechanic arts. .Moreover, the 






20 



ART OF PRESERVING WOOD 



fact that you use the same material leave- no doubt as to the BaecesB of your 

patent, it having long since heen practically established in Europe, that the 
products obtained from the distillation of coal tar, if properly applied t<> rood, 
will preserve it for a great length of time from d< ay, and also from destruc- 
tion bj marine and other insects. Truly yours, 

" Wm. II. Dwixklle, M. I)., No. 119 Tenth Strei t, New York." 

Tin- ereal value ofBethelTs discovery has been so clearlv demonstrated, by 
the uniform r alts of its application, that scientific men in Europe, and espe- 
ially the most distinguished engineers in England, have come to entertain 
i.ut one opinion oi its merits. It can hardly be necessary to multiply authori- 
ties in this connection ince the following emphatic testimony — extracted from 
Dr. Andrew Uj " Dictionary of the Arts," most aatisfj the most skeptical 
reader. Treating of the result of] thell'a process he says; — 
"The effect produced is that of perfectly coagulating the albumen in the 
. thus preventii iti putrefaction. For the sr< d that will be much expos- 
ed to the weather, and alternately wet am !ry, the mere coagulation of the 
ap is not sufficient; for dthoughth< Ibumen contained in the p of the wood 
the most liable and tin* first 1 to putrify, yet the lign< us fibre itself, utter it 
I j ;i - I) n deprived of all sap, will, arhenexpos* I in a warm, damp situation! 
t and crumble into dust. To pn erve wood, thei ore, thai will be 
much expo d to the ireather it is not only necessary that the sap should b< 
filiated, but t lint the iibi should be protected from moisture, which is 
Hi 1I\ done by this proroaa. 

"Th itmospheric action on w i thus prepared renders it toucher, and in- 

finitely slmn A post made of b h, or even of Scotch fn. is render* 

durable, and as strong ie made of the best oak. the bituminous mix- 

in H li all its pon> ire till I acting a cement tO bind the fibres 

ther in a close toujrli n and the more porous the wc i is, the more 



dui id t it 1h a- it imbibes, a £ eater quantity of the bitumin- 

il, h is j>ro^ Ibyitsinc I w . ht. The material! wife h are in- 

I preserve iron d other met ah ft n corn hi; and an iron bolt driven 

il i w« d turatid, n r»s | M <.iii,.| and i,,, from flltft. It also 

<-si*tw th« ittack ' insect and it ha* he< n p \ ed b\ Mr. Prit . h :■ i d. at 

ham Harbor, that tl « ., r naval worm, will not touch it 

W .1 thus , l for tl< an, piles, | *t s, fencing, eta., is i I :r 

ail ted by alt aate expoanrt I wet andd : it require* i og, and 

•o it has 1 li i X|i il the air 1 gone *, it *es e\ uuph isant 

L 

n pro* - ha- a ado] 1 i th< v N $ eminent engineara, 

Mr. Rol ej Mr BrunetL Mr liidd M< Brathwait Mr. Bu 

Mr. Hai Mr. W • ead. Mr I' • • ^ an ,i m . an ,j j^ (jj , 11M . 4J 

*ithtl *t m th at \V ra Raflwa the Bristol rid Ei 

rRail* liirrnin K Lam Railwa KasUfIL 




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22 



ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 



instead of restoring to it what had been lost by time and exposure to the 
elements. Moreover, while the materials used actually destroyed the native 
integrity of the wood, they were of far too costly a nature to admit of gene- 
ral application. For these reasons the several processes of Kyan, Margary, 
Burnett, Payne and Boucherie, will ultimately be regarded as failures, practi- 
cally and in every essential sense. 

Very different will be the public verdict respecting the claims of BethclFs 
discovery. How for he really comprehended, or even perceived the principles 
which the subject involves, we may not be able to determine; nor is this im- 
portant in estimating the value of what he accomplished. It is manifest that 
his course of experiment was in the right direction. He sought to preserve, 
by artificial means, the vitality of Nature — to prevent the loss of those constit- 
uents and properties which are essential to wood in its normal and undecaying 
state. To him belongs the credit of originality, and of furnishing the potent 
suggestion which has enabled Mr. Robbins to complete a discovery second to 
no achievement in the useful arts, in the universality of its application, and in 
the consequent magnitude of its practical results. 

Hitherto we have discovered nothing that will so effectually resist moisture 
as oil. It is not only a demonstrated fact in science, but it has become a pro- 
verb everywhere, that oil and water have no affinity — that they will not unite. 
While water finds its way through the closest animal tissues and into the 
hardest wood, and, by mechanical pressure, may even be forced through the 
solid metals, this antagonism between oil and water is universal and irresisti- 
ble. Tliis suggests the immense value of oil in the preparation of all durable 
fabrics and manufactures of wood that are required to lie impervious to moist- 
ure, lu all civilised countries, and back through the entire historic period of 
the world, men have acted on this suggestion; in the preparation of the skins 
of animals for shoes and for other purposes ; in the manufacture of various 
ntside garments; in painting their dwellings, ships, fences, furniture, and all 
the other superstructures of wood. These are rendered durable by the proper 
application of oil, and in proportion as the oil so applied is of a nature suited 
to endure the action and influence of oxygen and moisture. * 

The vegetable and animal oils differ essentially in their constituents from 
the oleaginous compounds derived from bituminous substances. The differ- 
ed in their inherent capacity to n list moisture is equally marked and no less 
deserving of notice. Tin exposure of the former to the action of the elements 
gradually diminishes this power of resistance. Heat brines the organic oils to 
the surface of whatever they are applied to, and some of them are soon dissi- 
pated ro that they no long r afford a sure protection. But it is oo( so with 
the products of coal tar, or with the bituminous oils. Thes< . Instead of being 

dissipate in part, or otherwise impaired by the ordinary changes of tempera- 
ture and the rarying degrees of moisture, become resinous from exposure, and 

hence the subs tan n to which they are applied become harder and more dura- 
Die by time. It is the unqualified testimony of Dr. Ur. that railroad sleepers, 



A1JT OF PRESERVING WOOD. 






that had been in a for more than three years, " looked much better than 
when fii laid down." 

At the time we write corrosive sublimate is worth one hundred and thirty- 
doll per one hundred pounds, while chloride of zinc is still more expen- 
sive. The preparation of railroad ties, by the use of such materials — if we 
allow one pound to a single tie — would cost not less than one dollar and a 
half each, while the cost of a far more effectual treatment, by the products 
of coal tar, would scarcely exceed ten cents. In the treatment of railroad 
ties and the timber for bridges and wharves, acids and alkali arc especi- 
ally objectionable becau they corrode the iron bolts and spikes, and thus 
impair and ultimately destroy the wood with which they are in contact. If 
Copper nails and sheets be employed, as in covering the hulls of vessels, the 
corrosion must he more rapid when such substances have been employed in the 
preparation of w 1. On the contrary, oil prevents this corrosion of the 
metals, and in this respect it contributes essentially to the inherent durability 
of any structure that may he made of such composite materials. 






SPECIFICATIONS OF THE ROBBIXS PATENT. 

To All Whom if may Concern : — Be it known, thai I, Louis S. Robbins, of the 
City, County and State of New York, have invented a new and improved 
proc 3 for preserving wood from mold or decay ; and I do hereby declare that 

the following is a full, clear and exact, description thereof, which will enable 
those killed in the art to make and use the same, special reference beinu: had 
10 the accompanying drawings, forming part of this specification. 

Tt is a well-known fact, that wood, when cut down, and separated from Un- 
roots which supply it with its antiseptics, immediately becomes affected by 
i xposure to the heat and the moisture of the atmosphere; the former of which 
rapidly dissipates the fluid or sap of the wood, while the latter impregnates the 

woody fibres with substances which the wood, while growing, by its antisep- 
tics, entirely excluded. These alternate actions upon the woo I gradually and 
finally cause it i ■• < ty. To prevent this decay of wood is, therefore, the 
object of the present invention, and this object is accomplished thereby. Th 
method consists in subjecting the wood to a preservative process by which 
nearly all of its antiseptics are retained within the same; and for those lost, 
aupplying such substances as will prevent their further waste ; at the same 
time closing the pores and forming such a combination with the fibres of the 
wood as will effectually prevent the deteriorating effects of either heat or 
moisture at ordinary temperatures, or of both upon the same, as hereinbefore 

alluded to. . 

Many processes have been heretofore invented for the preservation ot wood, 

om of which were entirely impracticable, while others were only partially 
successful; but by none could the wood be sufficiently impregnated or sutu- 






24 



ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 



rated with the preservative compound, to insure its preservation for a great 
length of time, owing to the manner in which the same was applied to the 

wood. 

One form of apparatus for carrying out my improved process is represented 
in the accompanying plate. A, in the drawing, represents a retort, made of 
any desired form or size, in which coal tar, resin, or oleaginous substances or 
compounds are placed, and subjected to the action of heat from any suitable 
furnace. B represents the man-hole in the upper portion of the retort, used in 
cleansing the same or in changing its contents. C C, a pipe communicating 
with retort A, at or near its top, passing to, and communicating with, cham- 
bers or receptacles, D. E represents the discharge pipe, employed for remov- 
ing the remaining contents after the operation is over. 

Heat being applied to retort A, containing the coal tar, etc., as described, 
oleaginous vapors are gene rated therein, which pass out of the same through 
the connecting pipe, C C, into the wood chambers, D, or into only one of the 
same as may be desired. The heat thus applied first causes the surface moist- 
ure of the wood to be removed therefrom, taking the form of steam and con- 
densing on the sides of said chambi r, from which it is drawn off through pipes, 
IT, which may be placed in or near the bottom. 

Having thus removed the surface moisture from the wood, I then thoroughly 
impregnate and saturate it through all its pores and fibres by the oleaginous 
vapors and heavier products of the distillation, until it is made impervious to 
moisture, and so as to entirely resist the action of the atmosphere, when it may 
be removed from the chambers, D, through the doors, 31 M ; when the cham- 
bers are again to be charged with wood, and so on as long as may be desired. 

In the operation of my process, a temperature of from 212 deg. to 250 deg. 
Fahrenheit is sufficient to remove the surface moisture from the wood; but to 
saturate the ime with oleaginous vapors and other products, it is best that 
the teim rature should be raised to 300 degrees Fahrenheit, or higher if ne- 
cessary. 

From the above description, it is apparent that, by my process, I am enabled 
to more completely saturate the wood with the preservative compound than 
has been, or can be done by any of the proc< us heretofore in use; for the 
reason that I cause the preservative compound to permeate the pores and fibres 
of the wood, in a vaporized state, while in the others it is made to enter in a 
liquid state; and it is also evident that it is accomplished in an economical, 
expeditious, effective and practical manner, 

I do not intend to limit myself to any particular form of apparatus ; nor do I 
intend to limit myself to the removing of the surface moisture from the wood 
by means of oleaginc a vapors, as herein described, as there are various ways 
in which the same can be accomplished with the use of heat. But what I do 
claim as n> w, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is : 

The process herein described for preserving wood from mold or decay, the 
same consisting in first removing the surface moisture from the wood, and then 



ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 



25 



? 



charging and saturating the same with hot oleaginous vapors and compounds, 
substantially as dc ribed. 

Also rein<>\ ing the surface moisture from the wood by means of hot oleagi- 
nous vapors, sub uilially as herein described. 

Lous S. Bobbins. 
Witnesses : 

M. M. Livingston- 
Albeei \\\ Bbown. 

It will be perceived, from an examination of the foregoing specification, thai 
.Mr. Robbing' method of treating wood poas< great advantages over even 
that of BethelL Indeed, it will be obvious, on a moment's reflection, that his 
pro a must be tar more rapid and complete. For while Betheil employed 
his oleaginous c< mpounds in a liquid state, Bobbins uses the same materials in 
the form of rapor, in which condition they arc sublimated to a degree which 
is eleven hundred limes finer than they are in the >tate in which Ucihell 
employed them, and, of consequence, so much the more penetrating. In this 
tate of extreme attenuation, the elements which preserve the wood arc more 
readily admitted — the capillary action being greatly accelerated and made to 
thoroughly permeate the entire structure of the wood. At the same time the 
hot vapor opens the pores and expands the wood, so that a larger quantit) of 
the oily compound is admitted The pores being thus filled, the contraction 
ulnch naturally results from the cooling procee Is them, if possible, in a 

still hum. effectual and lasting manner. The rast superiority of the Robbin 
process, as compared with that of Betheil, can only be fairlj estimated 1>\ 
those who realize the immense difference between the effi of water 

and steam iii their relations to chemical action and mechanic I force. 

But we should tail in our attempt to comprehend the full value of thi 
improvement were we to overlook other import. mi msiderations. It is to be 
observed that this process renders light and porous wood as solid and durable 
as the finest grained timber, and perhaps equally well adapted to all ordinary 
purposes in the arts. In fact, it may admit of a question whether the m t 

porous wood may not be made to last even longer than the wood thai is least 

so from the fact that it absorbs a greater quantity of the material on which it 

preservation is made depend. 

Wood, treated by the Bobbins process requires no paint as ameai >f 
protecting it from the ordinary action of the elements. Paint i therefort 
useless except for ornamental purpos ; and even then, o much of it as i 
required to till the pores is saved when the wood has been previously treated 
by this method, and this saving will doubt] - cover the cost ofthemosl effl - 
ual treatment under tin patent. 

It is, moreover, important to observe that this process ons the wood 
most effectually ; and inasmuch as it thoroughly protects it from the influence 
of moisture, il follows that wood so prepared is neither liable to swell, shrink, 
warp nor crack. 



2i 



ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 



A jusl estimate of this last and most perfect prow Forpn -ving wood 
mighl office to startle every thoughtful man in the community. Exp< ace 
prov that to eDsnre the traveling public against accidents, resulting fi u 
dec l raih >ad sieepe -, the whole should be removed at leas; once in fiv 
yea . The present cost in the Middle States is seventy-five cents each; and 
it will be sale to as inie the average pri to be £ y >ughout the 

mire country. Add fifty cents each to this, J the probable c *1 of removing 
the old sleep , putti ig down the new, and replaci ig the rails, ml it will bi 
percen d that i ry nevs r th is supplied in volt m • , in 

1,1 ii 1 Lai i i2 dolia As raiir I ties are pi 1 m av< rag 

distai about t i > t, it follows that 2,500 are required in a sii jle mile. 

\h\v i iosts about tw Lty-fiv( hundred dollars ( 00) per mil bo r< Love 
the old s i r and lay down th net* m As th • • > fifty-thousand mil 

f rail tra in the Unit 1 Stal . it \ ill >p ar that %\ i,000,000 an 
demanded t<» - ipp >rt th ails ol 11 the r i I- in the count .*. 

Tin » 1: in i i lie i no i • ex pen •>' a sii e Vi I of th* 

of I our railroad Ifth ren< ed once in five , the inevitable 

<• l 'm tin* next t\\ it\ ive \ . of the ii< r the i i«l alrcadt con 

truct i will amount to i f dollars! Now, it being demonstrated 

tl t si | pared b; pr< alread; ribed, will last i qua ter of 

:i -tit ury, the < ' on is inevitabl that i universal application of th( 

\[i • the t*u- of all on >ads would involve a ivjng — after 

deduct! the c of th preparation under the patent — of soi 000,000 

dolla \A if the ] of the truction of ich ids, for 

li\ -uld ( t tl it \\ as during t li< 

i\ \t i I i 1 1 ir t ! ! « (2,< mil per annum), th< iving 

of mon< - raih id 1 md in tl lal I L hem down, would imt 

HI much si. >f ! 



i 



t tl 



i 



it i ii tin* 1 hi 11 id i ht 4 R< tbbins proc< 

1 1 - lit :it ion ; i | >or1 . i fi m Th w i • "1 prep 1 

)> nlj tit f< that w liion* id adapted to the rud< 

, such i I 1 i , t lie piles for hrid hn , J »r 

that tlu i tl r pro dm . I 

15m; liolihins ] appli< tin tne in th< form i i por f the 

« I a ire ( tl • it i* lit to b 

Ii md It ui work hip ie n urn d. 



A| ti i 



in 



1 



tl I in of rail] 1 timber 



h | in ip it ;t- \ lai 

s < it ; ,| of tl i [> 



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ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 27 

arid an an due train on the axles, and on the flanges of the wheels, the break- 
ing of which constitutes another prolific source of railroad disasters.* 

The direct loss to our railroad corporations, in the destruction of property 

b eh idents, is very heavy; but it would • ^uite impossible to compute 
the still peater loss that i^ indirectly sustained. The fact cannot be disguised 
that 1 1n- jmiug indifference of railroad companies to the public safety has 
the effect to greatly diminish the travel Multitudes who would mike fre- 
quent excursions for pleasure but foi i feeling of insecurity, now only ventun 
from home when the pursuits of business or other circumstances imperativel; 
demand it, Beside, it' the distance be short, many persons ose a conve; 
of their own, when they might travel by rail at Less expense of both time and 
mom . It is a false economy that rein- to accept and apply a great 
improvement when once it is demonstrated to exist ; and our railroad directors, 
must be made to feel that it is even criminal to disregard such a discovery 
when it is known that the public safety demand- its immediate adoption. 

We have only estimated the value of Mr. Bobbins 1 pr< for pi itsrving 

wood in it< relation to a single use. And yet, wood is the chief material 
employed in the world's navies and merchant marine; in the construction of 
our dwellings, workshops, warehouses, carriages, fences, agricultural impl< 
meats, and household furniture. The millions require it in fashioning th 
implements of toil; three-fourths of the products of the earth, and of all 
human industry, are inclosed in wood for preservation 01 transportation; the 
masses, in all countries, warm their dwellin and cook their food bj its com- 
bustion, and the whole vast commerce of the world -till rides on every oo< n 

and sea in vehich of wood. 

The new process is equally applicable to wood in all its as< a except for fuel 
But we have no data from which a reliable estimate can be made of th 
immense saving which would result from its universal adoption. 



THE SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION OX WOOD PRESERVING. 

S. B. Butttan, M. D., member of the New Y'ork Association for tl. Ldv&noemeat «»f lem «• 
and An some time since read a carefully pi psircd \n\ per, on the History i IPhiloeoph: f 
Pr Tviii.tr Wood, before the Engineering - ction of thai bod The following b an extract 

from Dr. Rrittan's paper, which appeared, in h n*o % in one of the daily journals : 

There are several processes, natural and artificial, whereby v od — at least 
the insoluble portion of the same— may be preserved for an indefinite pen I. 

When the oilv and resinous matter, and all the volatile products of wood ar 



* The gi t destruction of life by railroads in this country is rapidly becoming ■ earn of i al 

reproach. It ifl well known that railroad accidents are far t» nmm- Europe th th 

mntrj [for is the comparative infreqnencj of such diaas - ifl England, France and rma 
altogether attributable 1 the superior eooatraetioo of tbelr railroads. It » email < . to 

the fact that their railroad ties are subjected to some process which renders them kea liable to deca 



28 



vRT OF PRESERVING WOOD. 



remove! by a bIow combustion, the carbon remains in the form of charcoal 

This is a very poor conductor of heat, and a powerful antiseptic : < \]>osuw to 
air and moisture does not materially change its condition; and hence it will 
not decay. < irbon in this form is well nigh imperishable, except by combus- 
tion; while in the pure, crystalline state, it can only be destroyed by the appli- 
cation of heat sufficiently intense to consume the diamond. Piles, potts and 

takes are often charred on the surface to preserve them from decay. Men 
who follow the sea likewise charthe outside of cask- and tanks by which 
means the water contained in them is kept cool and pun during long voyages 
into tropical regions. Whenever— by other means than combustion— the wlu- 
ble matter Is expelled, only the lignine, or fibrous portion of the wood re- 
mains, indthis is quite imperishable, except when it is attacked by parasitic 

ingi. In this ea tic effect becomes irisible in the dry wrt, which gradually 
destroys the organic structure and the cohesion of is dement-. 

We ha\ other condition- of certain constituents of wood, in which they an 
indestructible by the ordinary action of oxygen and moisture. The* oondi- 
tione are found in the carboniferous formations and bituminous deposits in the 

rth, which are doubtless the products of extinct \ . _•< tution, . 1'. I DJ im- 

mcii-c pi' and the action of volcanic tii > — ' suiting in \ ~t condensa- 

tion . and, in respect to the coal beds, th<- dissipation by heat, and expulsion 
D . j, , . <u ,„. other* fthi lluidi and gases from the si terranean forest* 
i;,.,,,,,,. abstan i pn rve wood and other organic forms of matter, A 
pitch pine knot will last for a < atui -buried in th< -round— pi rved by 
t) 1( . , -in m resin it contain-. The fossil resins ma) also be nse<l to preserve 
both reeetabh* id animal substanc< Th< ancients were :.s familiar with 
t u* farts as the modern*, It is laid thai the temple of Diana at Kpliesus 
wis built on pili which were found — irithiii tin lasl century — to be in astate 
ofi t pn erratioi icefloftlu rm having been charred and other- 

n*e ated to render tb a imperishable. The earl] Greek hi-toriaris <p«-:ik 
>f the a whicli **phaltum wag applied; and we I rn from Win j and 

tl> the Kiryptian* employed this substance and the pyrol neon* arid 

4 ' I in the pi of eml iiig 1 1 dead. 

The ntific phil pby -i" the Robbina pro<< - for pre rvii wood ma) 

} M briefly 1 in tin- ronnection Albumen i^ t lie constituent 1 in wood 

nrhirli fn d< mpow ; and hei pro* -- of di or putrefaction fom 

. l i,d ii 1- ipitil th< w< lvti-^m i d. Hut the albumen 

,, ( ij, i* I by I applicati »f heat, and aluo by tni ntisepti* 

power of * vhieh 1 ag on- v n j #< - dep ii Ln the rellul n ti 

ilbum if ii :bl«- in w and hence it i* not liable to 1 

1 In • \|k^up I i hu 1 a Tli< • itial oil, disengrae' 

and I b lUtillit i. preserves the el ie Ii - film - 

the m L pn - it a I injur} i 1 1 * • ordinary \ i« dtudes of tem- 

j und moistui Win -i »d has !»• Sted b\ i \\ tar, o the bitu- 






mi 



it und< rgoes a certa otln f i hanu< from *u] 



\j ^ure t 




ART OF PRESERVING WOOD. 29 



the air. The i ential oil loses a portion of its hydrogen, at the same time it 
takes up an extra portion of oxygen from the atmosphere, and henoe becomes 



rt si noun. 



Thai the antiseptic principle derived from coal tar — in the Bobbins proce- 
ss readily introduced into and through both animal and vegetable substances 
must hi' obvious. The process of coring meat furnishes a familiar illustration. 

One has only to taste of a smoked ham to find that the creosote bas found it- 
way to the center. The metallic salts likewise have the effect to separate th 

albumen fvn}a it* aqueous solution, thus preserving it from putrefaction. The 

album- ii and gelatine of animals when combined with tannin also form insol- 
able compounds, and thus the skins of animal- are made to resist the agent 

which would otherwise produce a putrescent state. Morever, by the intimate 
combinations thus formed we account tor the antiseptic properties and effects 
of corrosive sublimate and chloride of zinc as applied to the preservation of 

wood, in tli-' processes employed by Kyan and Sir William Burnett. 

In the Robbins proa 3 the surface moisture is soon d ssipated by heat, ami 
the wood is thus partially seasoned. The more volatile oil first passes otf, en- 
tering the open pores — not less than two of three thousand i:i number to each 
and ever? inch of surface. It is well known that the capillary action is threat 
ly increased by heat; and the oleaginous compound — in a kte of the greatest 
possible attenuation— is rapidly diffused through all tin lubstanec of the rood 
[»v increasing the heat, the heavier products arising from the distillation are 
made to thoroughly permeate the woody tissue, and at lasl to clo* \> the 
capillary tubes, having the entire iirfa of the wood hm rvious to moistun 

The great importance of this treatment is bo fairly established by the result 
of Bethell's experiments, and the experience of more than a quarter <>f a cen- 
tury, that Dr. Andrew lire affirms that, "the commonest Scotch tir sleeper, 
when thus prepared, will last for oenturw 



A GREAT EVIL AND THE REMEDY. 



We extract tlie following from a leading ecKtoriaJ that appeaml la tbc Hartford (Cobb.) Duily 
Tim, of the date of September 20th, 1860 •• 

The increasing frequency of railroad disasters, aeeornpani I b] i frightful 
destruction of human life, is exciting general apprehension, and calling n- 
tion to the best means of guaranteeing the traveling public a on the n cut 
rence of such accident* We are persuaded that a thorough investi ition int 
the caue of railroad disasters would clearly demonstrate the I t that tare 
number i ult from the <l of railroad t i« ind the destruction of the pil 
of bridgi by marine \v<>nn Experienci has proved that the ti or steepen 
of railroads only last about five years. The precis ime, of cour van 
according to the virying degrees of inherent durability and the vicissitudes 









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32 ART OF PRESERVING WOOD 



Tin- old si- rs are permitted to remain, to aave expense, until one by one 
thev vield to the freight of trains, when a rail breaks, and anoth r ch ipter is 
added to tl record of human sacrifices. 

There is reason to apprehend that the pil of some railway-bridg are per- 
forate 1 in all directions, ben U the surface of the wato r, bj marine worms ; 
ami t no proper investigation is cither instituted or d nanded. Owing to 
this neglect, and the d »y of railway timber, we may expect that the number 
ofaccidi f this class will in reaee, until the evil finds a violent remedy In 

exasperated public sentii nt. 

In il Northern and Middle States the supply of timber is diminishing. 

Itiilw ties thai Once cost thirty cents an* now worth double thai price, in 

the suae localities; and the facta are such as to occasion apprehension among 



id who « most cone- rued in railway enterpris< Foi ob\i<»us »ds, it 

should b i matter of <1 perinteresf to tin- public, [tisdifficull to substitute 

>th material for man] of the nsi s to w hieh wood is applied. If this can- 

n be .loin . ;md the quantity is like!; to be insufficient in tin future then 

ime means should be adopted to prevent the present waste of an artieh 
n to the pi ss .I the useful an If we cannot derate the 

rovrth of timl i it i^ well to confide r what maj be don< to m st its ■ I. ea\ 
\ ;irh an 1 Bet hell's pi for preserving wood was patnted in K in- 

land K iii's method, and the pro > discover I bj sir William Burnett 
atl I atteutiou about tin me time. Thev eraplo\ I corro i sublimit 

and e!il- in- . i : ' m hile Bethcll >\< I the surface I id tilled 

p-.n with an o •_ « .iijomI Tii i ill- of these exp rim ii 

d It t< -i)»ilit\ of pr nj w I foi m iiideliuite tim j but 

ii ih 'I iplo\ 1 were im » I, if we except Bethel 1> pro «», 

hi mi s were too ex pen _ application. It remained foi an 

\m i perft this important discov< ry. 

Mr. Lom s Bobbing of this cit has r entlj | tented a new pi in 

which he i loys the antiseptic ] iple derived 1 m ;i distillation of coal 

Hi- in. i i- nnpl tin- ma rial cinph ed is eh and the pi iefr 

ra| land luaL Kb tht pr \.iti\. principle in I bins' pro - i* the 

- . • ■ ... i* t hat ol Bet hell, tin durability ot wood ao prepared i- demons! rat< d 
I- LPs experiment and nfirne 1, b\ the ( Eperieun "l a quarter ol a 
t u 

S it i* a* mod that wood eat< 1 lev Bobbin pfoes* > II UlM I 

tweutv-fiv< v % in tin moat exi I ntuatn and that this laet i* < i ,1 



1 I atonable doubt b> the apphcai n of the sanu anti-eptj. 

iph n| iod hep sh im »iian«\au tat Q 

If it II ided. et the r en tililbej b< .pi;, d b\ 

I r. It dull lity can be earn I 'tailed, we should n 

having it tie mat il> • • I way*, 1 1 is also a meaai noun, 

11 a* ' ne that in\ es the public sa 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

In order to facilitate the operations of the National 
I'm . Wood Pbeserving Company the Executive Com- 

mitt I1,;I ' for s ate 200 shares of the Stock set apart 

as working capital. 



Persons wishing to purchase can do so by applyiu 
the Officers of the Company. 



g to 



< 




* 



APPLICATION" TO LEVEES. 

B) recent investigations it has been found that, in the 
i nafa ction of Levees for Southern Plantations, Lumber 
can be used so as -to afford complete protection against 
the Craw Fish, so destructive to the dykes as heretofore 
made, and a plan of a modern structure for that purpose 
has already been invented. 

The application of the Bobbins Process to the 
treatment of the wood thus used, will prove to be a source 
of great profit to this Company. 



f 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



I ompanies formed lor the purpose of using, or bringing 
into use, the Bobbins Process for Preserving Wood in 
Cities, Counties, or States, can purchase the right to do so 
on the most advantageous terms. 

<>(-HCE OP CoMPA.MT, ) 

8 Br /way, X. }'.. Sept. 1866. f 



> 



*